The environment of realism is neo-polis, industrial city (“of coal and steel”) and administrative conglomerate. Man has fallen from “divine state” (civitas dei) to the “earthly” one (civitas terrestris). The city is the factor of accumulation (of population, production, capital, power…) with infernal attributes (cloacae of merciless exploitation, crimes and misery). It is a metaphor for the center, cradle of mechanization, national integration, transports (railways, steamships…), a place full of life, success and unhappiness, incubator of political maturation and confrontation… Industrialization “transforms the man from farmer-shepherd to manipulator of machines run by lifeless energy” (Hobsbawm); nation-state destroys burg (“city-state”) and transforms people into nation; urbanization substitutes ordinary man to bourgeois. This is also the end of previous institutions (medieval family, clan, social and manufactural castes…) and affirmation of new values, manifested in unprecedented individualism, secularization, sever competition, division of labor and specialization…
Though still maintaining that everybody is, by historical conditions, traveler (“live baggage”) in the train which, by the iron logic of development, rushes into the future… realist lacks the feeling of transition. He uses gloomy colors in painting the big fall in the hell of dehumanization, social underworld, suburbs, sanatoriums, jails, workers “caves”, markets and city periphery, scaffolds of civilization… Mechanization seals everything (men are mechanized in head and in heart as much as in hand – T. Carlyle). Time and space are functions of mechanical (not natural) processes, social (not individual) perceptions, they are changed and shortened but remain separate and objective (external) quantifications.
Modernism is affirmed in metropolis, the heart of monopoles and financial capital, the center of modernization, trade, banking, automated production… No more urbs aeterna but waste land (T. S. Eliot), kingdom of madness (Trakl), apocalypse and chthonic atmosphere, this center has traits of cosmopolis and magically attracts people of different cultures, languages, races, knowledge (it is natural to be a “stranger” or immigrant, as much as being “at home”). In metropolis exist both: the center (permanently dehumanized, with extremely developed bureaucracy) and the periphery (people from colonies, unemployed, lumpen-proletariat, “bulvarnaya inteligentia”…). Dominant technologies are: electricity, oil and its derivates, automobiles and air transportation, wire communications (telephone, telegraph…), mechanized printing press (linotype), film… Modernist movements are international, developed in crossings of different influences (Paris, London, Chicago, New York, Zurich, Berlin, St. Petersburg…).
For a realist the city was a “raw material”. For modernist it is way of life. Acceleration, transitivity, transformation of duration into tempo, haste, panic…all these are features of metropolis as well as modernist art. Time and space are interiorzed, becoming continuum (quantum physics), shortened or lengthened according to subjective perceptions. Insecurity, anxiety, instantism… syncope, permanent innovations, experimentation, monographism, introspection… are widespread tendencies. Subjectivization enfolds the “real” image of the city (“the place as it is”) in fog of i-reality (urban life is essentially un-real and sur-real). The city concentrates all frustrations caused or strengthened by destructions and confrontations, bankruptcy of scientific and social utopias (progress, reason, revolution, communism…), devastations of totalitarian projects (fascism, Stalinism…), moral debacles of alternative solutions (“welfare state”), construction of new etatistic labyrinth in which we are prey for the bureaucratic monster… Metropolitan man is neither pilgrim nor missionary of Romanticisms, nor inspector of neo-polis, but migrant, transmigrating person (generally from the world of periphery to “cancerous centers”), motivated by economic, cultural or political needs. Swinging between two “sides”, countries, social environment… he deeply experiences the crisis of identity and time. But, being modern is inevitability and primary demand, intellectual herald (Rimbaud: Il faut être absolument moderne). Modernism is enthroned as “the only art appropriate to the modern man” (G. Stein).
Postmodernist environment is skeno-polis, stage on which everything is scenography, acting, spectacle and spectatorship…It is “fabricated”, simulated community (pseudo-polis). There is no centre, what remains is only periphery (subaltern, feminism, homosexuality…), marginal, suburbia, sub-cultural. The world is shaped by technologies of simulation, manipulation and persuasion (TV, radio, advertising, commercials…). This is a necro-polis where everything dies: man, reality, change, work, production, society, sense, arts…
Skenopolis is the empire of the culture of death (Baudrillard) with its necropolises of civilization (archives, museums, galleries…). Their “canonized” pseudo-philosophers sing requiem for humanity and perform massive rituals of exorcism, speculating that life is a crooked mirror (speculum) in which everything is distorted, mirage, the phantom in the cave (specus) of shadows. Artists are illusionists practicing theurgy, communicating with ghosts in spiritualistic ambiance where all measures and values, plans and standards… are mixed up… In this “city of illusions” all previous relations and values are substituted by production of mirages and values of signs. The postmodern man is only “a grain of masse” and could move (volvo) only as a cell in the mob (volvox). That is not a real movement but vital akinesis, imaginary nomadism, the illusion of crawling without empirical travel (the term tourism is not in favorable), romancing without the aim, going nowhere. Actually this simulation of movement in pseudo-polis is conditional reflex of lost vitality, proof of conviction that everything is mental spinning (cyclism), renovation of myth of eternal return…Le néant (nothingness) is not perceived as the pulse of the world (as in modernist irony) but as the essence of hyper-reality and a pulse of the mind.
The world of crealism is auto-polis, which is community of free human beings, koine and neuropolis. In the age of global communication networks and noetic technologies (computers, Internet, mobile and satellite links, nuclear breakthroughs, genetics, nano-world…) the citizen of human city has need and freedom to live both in closer and larger communities (within nets of different levels and qualities of integration, starting from his local commune to the world Community). That man, for the first time ever, is entitled to have a choice, to be in the world even in most isolated places, to act simultaneously in his “little” culture and universal human Culture. He is always in the center of his creative and created world. This is no longer neo-polis, monstrous mega-polis, nor pomo skenopolis, but invisible city where all sorts of experiences are to be met, combined and tasted, a junction of material and ideal existences, of real and virtual. Humanism and creation should rely on all human potentials (holism). The crealist does not believe in pomo “nomadism” (aimless “wandering”) but in creative monadism and noemadism, inquisitive adventure of cultural in-dividual (permanently moving, endlessly seeking and creating). Being in the world he knows very well his personal, individual responsibility and ability to create, maintain and develop his freedom and world.
Combining his and others (predecessors’ and contemporaries’) capacities and products, he is aware that by creating “for others” he creates for himself (he is never the same before, during and after creation). His thirst for novelties force him to permanently research, hunt, chase, cruise in time (trough history) and space (visiting different cultures). His travels are physical, material (globe-trotter) or virtual (net-trotter). Always “on the road” he does not lose the starting point (inherited values) and the target of his endeavor (newly created values). His life is an endless search. Knowing that human existence does not have meaning a priory, he broadens old and creates new horizons of meanings. His credo is not demiourgy (of realism), nor techneurgy (of modernism), nor semiourgy (of postmodernism) but fitourgy (constant and all pervasive creation).
Realism is focused on socio-sphere, economical, social and political relations. The society is stratified in social classes and layers and shaped by their permanent struggle for survival and domination. That struggle defines status and behaviors, the form of ideology and morals. The very base of society are production and vital economic interests (production is the fundament of everything, including politics and “science of production” – Saint-Simon). Society has its history (chronology of gradual development), organization, scientific explanation (rationalism, positivism, utilitarianism…), dynamism and logic of changes by evolutionary (Darwinism) or revolutionary (socialism, Marxism) means and steps.
The realists’ man is new zoon politikon (social animal), homo faber, with transparent, common nature. Through this magnifying glass realist thoroughly investigates everything: social disintegration and breakdown; class confrontations; urban–rural contrast; absence of solidarity and ethics; intellectual retreat and abulia (“superfluous men”); unscrupulous rise of newcomers and swindlers; trade with life and death (“dead souls”); the fate of “humiliated and insulted”; activism of rebels against social norms (legal, ethical, esthetical…)…
Dominant effects are decay, degeneration, alienation…Naturalism exposes life as “jungle”, men as “beasts”, “puppets” created, motivated and destroyed by passions, conditions and laws of human zoology. Dominant tone is discontent with actual conditions without connotations of returning to the previous state. Generally accepted are progress as “fundamental law of society” (Macaulay) and imperative of struggle for change. Certainty is based on the conviction that all basic natural and social laws are discovered, including “eternal law of truth and beauty” (Balzac).
For a modernist focus is on psycho-sphere, states of soul, spiritual resources, internal life. While realist relies on sociology, economy, biology… modernist favors psychology, psychoanalysis, phenomenology, quantum mechanics, theory of relativity… He investigates regions and states of conscious, unconscious, archetypal, primary structures of our mind.
The modernists’ man is homo ambiguous. Everything has the Janus’s face of “duality”, swaying (of reality, arts…). He is tortured by doubt, anxiety, fear, uncertainty, perplexity, melancholy… On one hand, refined, polished, cultivated, polite, educated, intelligent, clever and witty… on the other, daring, impudent, explosive, shameless, ironic, sarcastic, capricious… all traits of an urban man (homo urbanus), traits long ago noticed by classics. Sometimes those traits are extremely manifested (futurism, Dadaism, surrealism…).
Modernist’s goal is encounter with himself with an aim to dig up unexplored depths of subjective structure (unknown, unconscious, a dream), to go trough liminal experiences (hypnosis, hallucination, telepathy, psychic magnetism…), to reach un-real and sur- real, to describe indescribable, to express inexpressible. To do that it is necessary to dramatically shake previous conceptions of reality, science (only one, probably not the most important instrument of human cognition), to question “ruling truths”, to confront with the language, conventions, routine communications, petrified traditions. Subjective realism, psychological naturalism, non-fixed human nature…are elements of new registry of privileged concepts. Positive knowledge is complemented or substituted by intuition and para-science (mesmerism, occultism, mysticism); observation yields priority to interpretation; recording retreats before analysis, experiment and medium.
Dominant principles are: uncertainty (Heisenberg), relativity (Einstein), ambiguity (Freud). Artists advocate skepticism, (self)irony, parody, destabilization of firm positions (any assertion is incomplete without denial)…We witness transition from dialectic model (thesis–antithesis–synthesis) to ambivalent pattern which is not an old dichotomy or coincidence of opposites, but new, albeit unstable, compound of analysis and synthesis, transformation of everything in its opposite (enantiodromy of C. G. Jung). Within the hot oven of intellectual effort and emotional stress two typically modernist processes develop – Spaltung (splitting, separation, breaking…) and Verschmelzung (melting, assimilation, amalgamation…). Resting on one of these ends leads to schizophrenia. Both enable artistic integration and sublimation. Characteristic modernist matrix is affirmation of opposites: to embrace life and to run away from it; cosmos (order) and chaos (disorder); conservation and progress; conventional and innovative; naturalism and abstractness; delight and despair; construction and destruction; technophilia and technophobia; radical engagement and isolation…
Postmodernism flourishes in the sphere of simulation and manipulation. Mostly interested in sciences of epiphenomena and uncertainty (hyper-relativism, phenomenology of accidence, pataphysics), it is focused on mediation, on the concept “media is the message” (McLuhan) with decisive influence on both ends of transmition (subject and object). By their “magic” (enabling “implosion” of borders of reality and simulation) media abolish certainty of both the subject (psychological aspect) and the object (ontological and sociological side). What used to be just the “means” and “instrument” became “generator of reality”, of its transformation in hyper-reality, of change of facts in simulacrum, of society in “silent crowd”, of dynamic world in special zone, of class in mass. Everything is fractioned, indifferent, charmed by the kiss of deaths of object and commodity.
For postmodernism the man is homo consumptor, he does not produce but spend (destroys) what is offered. He is the subject turned to object under the influence of mass-media, aggressive marketing, propaganda, display, show, spectacle, gigantic political manipulation. But the real hero of postmodernism is homo trico, media magician, master of simulation. His avatars are homo loquax and homo fallax, experts in language games and technical illusions. He is the main “actor” of the world of hyper-reality, in the society relying no more on production of commodity (and values of production), money (and exchange values), but on signs and values of signs – general semiurgy and “symbolic exchange”. In this kingdom of illusion dominates glamour, “nebulous state” leading in “total entropy”. Everything operates on the level different from known (information and disinformation, past and future, factio and fictio…to have and to be, happiness and suffering). The mass production is not production for the masses but production of the masses. Dominant moral attitude is indifference.
Under the influence of various thinkers – often mentioned are Bergson, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Bataille, Durkheim, Mauss, Bateson (concept of plateau), less frequently Veblen (conspicuous consumption), Debord (societe du spectacle), Bantam (panopticon)… but buried in silence Plato, Kant, Weihinger…– and embracing extreme attitude of futility of change, pomo raises its flag: play, game. It is, by its nature, limitless game of signs (language). In this scope, common position is determined indetermination: the language, itself illusory, becomes the “jail” and the “cage”, worse even than biological, psychological or economic constraints (Darwinism, Freudism, Marxism); the sign – according to Saussure fully arbitrary – looses the trace of signified and, quite suddenly, installs itself as unquestionable base of communication (emptied of the sense of community – communion) and organization (society as “plexus of language games”).
The sphere of crealism is creation. The man is homo creator who creates his external and internal world. His basic need and strategy is not production but creative re-production, biological, psychological, social, cultural pro-creation. Homo creator is homo vertator, longing permanently to confirm himself, to continue, secure, and enhance his existence. This strive is source of his unlimited curiosity, of all (good and bad) adaptations and actions shaping his natural and social environment, enlargement of material, spiritual and social recourses. The most important successes of this paradoxal being are culture and society, which are interwoven and interdependent. Human socialization is not a mere aggregation (natural “invention” increasing chances for survival). The process and state of human sociality has completely new dimensions and open perspectives. All natural elements of aggregation (integration, communication, hierarchy, specialization, competition and confrontation…) are enormously enhanced and surpassed. The crucial role in this process belongs to culture while the crucial role in cultural development belongs to society. They limit and stimulate each other. They are generically linked: changing one changes the other. Culture consists of many accomplishments, partially separated “regions” of human creation, vertations. Every vertation has its own domain and dimension, functions and projections, aim and means, dynamism…
Still, each vertation is inevitably in native connection with others (all creations of men). This polyphony (“music of human spheres”) is precondition and expression of health of each person and society as a whole. The lack of contacts and convergences among vertations, as well as absence of their divergences and autonomy, is clear sign of smaller or geater degree of social deviation. To live in more vertations (worlds, spheres, dimensions, spaces, times, levels…) means to be more cultural, human being. Constant disturbance and reestablishment of harmony is the nature of creative process. Therefore, development is not uniform and linear. Decisive role in this process belongs to creators (individuals) and creative net of society (institutions, values, patterns, models, forces…). The choice of crealism is the total creation. In the center of this concept is the creator, with his sacrifices, his boldness and his heretic ideas. He is real fan-attic, fan of Phanes and double of Phaëton, who radically shakes fundaments of personal and social constraints. His unrest and craving for change is inevitably confronted with inertia of preservation, different barriers, forces and problems, trying to prevent him in his endeavor to change established order. But new balance, stability, cultural homeostasis could be restored only by creation.
Creation doesn’t separate but integrate people. Crealist does not sacrifice local for global and vice versa, person for the world or world for the person. He favors everything that makes world better. He substitutes irresponsibility and post-humanism of postmodernism by new humanism. In this sense, crealist is true homo humanus, equally both homo ludens and homo prudens. His game is not puerilism but the expression of his unbound mind and confirmation of his creative freedom. Being aware of the power of reason, crealist does not renounce the rest of the human abilities and capacities. At the same time, he is not a slave toany rigidity or prejudice. He affirms prudentia (responsibility, wisdom, reason, experience, knowledge…) as his strategy of enhancing quality of life.
For a modernist the world is liquid, in permanent motion. There are no firm and unchangeable borders of external or internal, of subject or object, of present or future, of time and space…Causal relations are substituted by accidents; social milieu becomes more complex; monism, compactness and objective logics yield their place to pluralism, fragmentary and subjective measures. Outside world is composed of “permanent sensations” (J. S. Mill), of illusions vibrating lyrically (impressionism) or dramatically (expressionism…). It is more problematic and disintegrated (split up to Kant’s sensorial phenomena and intellectual noumena), and could be re-integrated in subject itself.
The world of a postmodernist is nebula, gas, vapor, the smoke of something which does not exist anymore. Composed of phantom “facts and values”, it is, actually, a construct, the product of simulation. It is the “twilight zone” in which spaces (heterotopy of Foucault) and positions are completly confused. The reason is driven from the throne; there is no developmental of axiological hierarchy (priorities and value scale), consciousness (only in unconsciousness we are identical to ourselves). “The language is a home of Being” (Heidegger), but being illusion itself it is incapable of expressing the world. Men, object, subject, past, present and future… are imprisoned in vacuum, chaos, dissolution, flux, dialysis…without any solid support, and nothing could be confirmed or disputed. The entire secret of the science of truth is – there is no truth. “The truth” is but a mask for strategies of “might” (in this point Foucault follows Nietzsche and “hegemony” of Gramsci). Perceptions and conclusions are unreliable. It is impossible to take a neutral position. Every attempt of objective description, use of scientific methods, or any sort of verification is doomed to failure. We live in a pseudo-world transformed to hyper-reality by extremization of simulation and substitution of reality by models and codes. Life is, in its essence, the expression of total apathy, want of emotions, “allegory of death”.
For crealist the world is plasma, creation. He accepts it as men’s work, whatever its structure. “In the world” the man embodies his i/reality, i/rationality, i/logic…; his good and evil, sense and nonsense, his love and hatred, affinities and alienations, war and peace, crime and punishment, wisdom and madness… Understanding all creative powers and weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages, necessities and freedoms, we show new, critical, actual humanism. For everything happening in society nobody could be blamed but us. Ultimately, men are responsible for their lives. Striped to the bones, the man’s truth is anthropologically very simple: the basic drive and aim (as in all living nature) is survival. This is the main challenge for species and individuals. But man’s answer to that challenge is… Culture. As expression and base of sociality, humanity, culture is man’s creation. On the other hand, culture has transformed the “creature of nature” in its creator. Little has remained of “earthly” or raw nature. Our “minds and hands” (tools) have touched almost everything on the Earth, re-creating or adapting it to our needs, inevitably assuming responsibility. Object influences subject more if it is more subjective (shaped by our creative resources) and vice versa. Only in creation exists real exteriorization of interiority (objectivization of subject) and interiorization of exteriority (subjectivization of object). But once created, our subjective/objective world (i.e., culture, society, history…) are not less mysterious or easier to comprehend. On the contrary: the magic of otherness (creations of other persons and generations), complot, complexity and extreme variety of mediateons make it more “puzzling” and “charming”. Dangers of deviations, aberrations, destructions and self-destruction are omnipresent. They are real provocations of bestiality. Not only action of Shadow but overt howl of the Beast in the man. Confrontations of our potentials are the biggest source of our dramatic events and behaviors, tragedies, defeats and victories. “Ciphering and deciphering” of the world are not simply coding and decoding, but serious creative processes oriented toward the maintenance of our lives, increase of knowledge and crafts, enrichment of our culture and final change of the actual state we happen to be in. Crealist (albeit conscious of complexity and possible tragic aspects) always gives advantage to life, which is our creative chance. He creates for life and lives for creation. His “deity” is Eros (not postmodern Thanatos), not ordinary natural drive (of Freud, Jung), but metaphor of permanent search, craving for physical and spiritual reproduction, total procreation.
Realism perceives reality as objective and external. Man’s life is manifested in his outer environment, social relations and behavior. The artist acts in the world which is “completely separate”, “independent of our will”.
Modernism makes a turn toward subjective, internal reality. Writer does not exist in the world but world in the writer. Both, impression and ex-pression, pass through the sensorial, intellectual filter of each person. This process changes our cognition and comprehension, as well as our evaluation and creation (hence the demand for “re-evaluation of all values”). Reflection is substituted by refraction. In modernism every individual is the assessor and final judge of reality, and shapes it according to his subjective views.
For postmodernism the world is simulacrum which swallowed the subject, object, reality… Precisely said, reality is “the form of collective fiction” (P. Berger, T. Lucman) enabled and imposed by the process of socialization – institutionalization, communication, “games” – in the first place language games (Wittgenstein). Everything (existence, essence, cognition…) is undetermined, marked with total relativity. Since nothing is certain action, change, value system, assertions (including “truth”, “justice” etc.) are biased instruments of “scientistic” ideological and regional (western) domination (epistemological relativism). In the kingdom of simulation, in which the doubt is hopelessly entangled in aporia, artist could only accept “the rules of the game”, become simulator, producer of illusions.
Crealism affirms creality. Both external and internal reality are interwoven by our action. External reality is non-subjective (as materialists take) or mere construct (according to “radical constructivists”). Internal reality is non-objective (cf. idealists), or simple reflex of genetic factors (assumption of neo-positivists in biological sciences). Creality is reality created by us externally and internally, by our permanent interactions with subjects and objects, with aim to create our human world. This is a new world and world of novelty, open to change, limited only by the extent of our creative potentials. Vital core of any modern wisdom is, therefore, very simple but essential fact: we live in the world of creality, reality created by us. This is the crucial ontological, gnoseological and axiological “secret”. Everything else is derived from this basic fact…
Portons-nous à la puissance du modulant créaliste.
Tandis que les individus trépignent, s’agitent, suent corps et âme à la recherche de leur moi, l’époque avance, collective mais sans valeurs capitales autres que ces forces génériques qui absorbent le sujet en mal de compléments. Ou presque.
Le créalisme n’est pas un individualisme. C’est une force commune. Ce n’est même pas seulement un collectif, car il n’est pas que matière. C’est un modulant, entre le générique et le général : il exprime un style, un axe, une direction, une force en devenir. Il s’agit de conquérir des terres en les civilisant, de prendre des territoires aux gestionnaires de la mort-vivance et de rendre ces territoires de nouveau parcourus par des courants en spirale, riches de correspondances, de musique et de magies ascendantes.
Il est temps de cesser de parquet la poésie comme l’on épingle les papillons et de nous déplacer, aventuriers, dans l’espace-temps du même rêve multiple. Disposés à l'existence plutôt qu'exposés dans des galeries. Mélancoliques individus, lâchons notre quête du moi tout-terrain et surpuissant, méprisant ce qu’il y a de meilleur en nous et qui nous élève. Notre ressentiment compétitif ne sait plus admirer les maîtres et même plus les envier.
L’appauvrissement des conditions collectives de vie, l’asservissement des âmes à la forme individuelle avide, le créalisme le combat sans donner dans l'administration de l'événementiel, en lave volcanique courant sous nos rues froides et nos décors de cinéma.
Que puis-je faire ? Cesser de lutter en tant qu’individu seulement. Mais toujours en même temps comme force générale de combat contre le rétrécissement et l’appauvrissement de notre forme de vie.
Que m’est-il permis d’espérer ? M’incarner dans un mouvement qui me purifie du cancer de l’envie, de la jalousie, des mesquineries compétitives, de la gestion de carrière, du malentendu amoureux, du destin aveuglé par les impératifs décapitants du temps-argent.
Que dois-je croire ? Qu’une armée se lève. Cessons de monter sur les épaules les uns des autres pour voir un spectacle navrant, cessons de crier à qui mieux mieux sa tue-tête. Le monde est notre création et notre destin. Il est temps que la capacité de gratitude arrose nos sols anthropophages et fertilise nos cerveaux sages comme des images. Il est temps de s'entendre.
Portons-nous par-delà les nationalismes, les tribalismes, les communhautainrismes, les clientélismes, les onanismes, les identifications pulsionnelles, les hygiénismes, les bordélismes, les grippismes, les bonusismes et faisons échec aux audimats sourds.
Sous les pavés, la lave d'une tectonique des actes. Le créalisme est une politique de l’avenir portée séculièrement par la valeur foi. Le créalisme est l’intérêt général porté à la puissance Joie.